The imbalance between physical and emotional stress, trauma and complications, hypothermia, and colds all contribute to the development of osteochondrosis. Pathology is caused by degenerative changes in cartilage segments and bone tissue. The increase in the degree of motion of the intervertebral disc increases the possibility of this process, which is determined by the statistical data of the largest distribution of the cervical and lumbar regions. In addition to the spine, the joints of the upper and lower limbs are also affected.
Types and causes of osteochondrosis
Excessive overload of vertebral body segments or joints is the main cause of osteochondrosis according to the location and degree. It is divided into the following types:
- Thoracic osteochondrosis is a pathological process of unknown etiology, but according to clinical studies, its development is due to:
- hormone imbalance;
- Improper posture
- Structural abnormalities and curvatures;
- Professional activities related to pressure or long-term vibration of electric poles;
- Limitation of physical activity due to body overload or the reverse process;
- Cervical osteochondrosis is a pathology commonly referred to as "salt deposition". The main cause of cervical osteochondrosis is increased neck activity and tissue malnutrition. The background is:
- Excessive neck pressure;
- Hypothermia and previous colds;
- Uncontrolled movements that do not comply with safety measures and safety measures;
- Unfavorable weather factors;
- Stressful situation;
- Sitting for a long time without changing posture;
- Exposure to chemicals.
- Osteochondrosis dissecans or Corning's disease is a degenerative dystrophic process that starts with malnutrition and then inflammation of the knee, hip, elbow, and shoulder joints. Reasons for occurrence include:
- Genetic predisposition
- Violation of the patency of adjacent arterial branches.
Pathological abnormalities can cause disordered growth of bone tissue, displacement of intervertebral discs and joints, and nerve root stimulation, accompanied by pain.
The clinical manifestations vary with the type of pathology. In particular, thoracic osteochondrosis can cause shortness of breath for the following reasons:
- Pain that worsens with restricted breathing and chest movement;
- Intercostal neuralgia caused by irritation or invasion of the spinal cord;
- In the context of kyphosis and reduced lung volume, secondary deformities in the chest area.
Due to clinical manifestations, disguised as symptoms of other diseases, the pathological process is mistaken for angina, ischemia, pneumonia, gastrointestinal diseases, so it is called "chameleon".
One of the common symptoms of cervical osteochondrosis is dizziness, which is due to the compression of blood vessels and impaired cerebral circulation, and insufficient oxygen and nutrients enter the brain. Pathological manifestations are other symptoms:
- Lose direction in space;
- Noise in the head and ears;
- Blackened eyes or flashing spots;
- Throbbing headache;
- Nausea and vomiting.
If you have restricted tongue movement and staggering while walking, seek medical attention immediately and lie down face down before the patient arrives.
The symptoms of Cognin's disease are determined by the stage of the process, and range from discomfort and rapid fatigue of the affected limb to increased pain and joint volume over time, visible to the naked eye.
The treatment of this disease requires a comprehensive approach, divided into multiple periods. In the acute phase, medications, physical therapy methods and folk remedies are prescribed. During the remission period, it is recommended to recover in the resort, but it should be remembered that the spa treatment during the deterioration of osteochondrosis is not only unhelpful, but may be harmful.
In the acute phase of osteochondrosis, oral medications:
- Anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminate the inflammatory process;
- Analgesics used to relieve pain;
- Muscle relaxants to eliminate muscle spasms;
- Anticonvulsants to eliminate compression of nerve endings;
- Protective agent for cartilage tissue regeneration;
- Sedatives to relieve stress and support the nervous system;
- Vitamin complex provides the body with necessary nutrition and comprehensive fortification.
To relieve pain, a therapeutic blocker is used by injecting directly into the affected area. The analgesic effect and the enhancement of local blood circulation are produced by topical ointments and creams applied to the affected area.
Physiotherapy and medication are performed at the same time and during remission to maintain a stable position and prevent recurrence. For medical purposes, please use:
- Traction therapy and reflexology;
- Acupuncture electrical stimulation and exposure to cold;
- Cupping and Shiatsu massage;
- Ultrasound and electromagnetic vibration therapy.
The procedures performed by experts appointed by doctors can improve blood circulation, restore the function of damaged segments and increase vitality. Self-medication can cause relapse, worsen the condition and promote the development of pathology.